srqs.com The acronym dictionaries list SRQ as Service Request; Srqs
can also be Search Request; Srqs can be sales request; Srqs can also be sex
request. Service RequestSimilar sites are
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In economics and marketing, a service
is the non-material equivalent of a good. Service provision has been defined as
an economic activity that does not result in ownership, and this is what
differentiates it from providing physical goods. It is claimed to be a process
that creates benefits by facilitating either a change in customers, a change in
their physical possessions, or a change in their intangible assets.
Generally, a service can be defined as a set of benefits
* delivered from the accountable service provider, mostly in close coaction with
his service suppliers,
* generated by the functions of technical systems and/or by distinct activities
of individuals, respectively,
* commissioned according to the needs of his service consumers by the service
customer from the accountable service provider,
* rendered individually to the authorized service consumers on their dedicated
* utilized by the service consumers for executing and/or supporting their
day-to-day business tasks or private activities.
By supplying some level of skill, ingenuity,and experience, providers of a
service participate in an economy without the restrictions of carrying stock
(inventory) or the need to concern themselves with bulky raw materials. On the
other hand, their investment in expertise does require marketing and upgrading
in the face of competition which has equally few physical restrictions.
Providers of services make up the Tertiary sector of industry.
Services can be described in terms of their main attributes.
* Intangibility - They cannot be seen, handled, smelled, etc. There is no need
for storage. Because services are difficult to conceptualize, marketing them
requires creative visualization to effectively evoke a concrete image in the
customer's mind. From the customer's point of view, this attribute makes it
difficult to evaluate or compare services prior to experiencing the service.
* Perishability - Unsold service time is "lost", that is, it cannot be regained.
It is a lost economic opportunity. For example a doctor who is booked for only
two hours a day cannot later work those hours— she has lost her economic
opportunity. Other service examples are airplane seats (once the plane departs,
those empty seats cannot be sold), and theatre seats (sales end at a certain
* Lack of transportability - Services tend to be consumed at the point of
"production" (although this doesn't apply to outsourced business services).
* Lack of homogeneity - Services are typically modified for each client or each
new situation (customised). Mass production of services is very difficult. This
can be seen as a problem of inconsistent quality. Both inputs and outputs to the
processes involved providing services are highly variable, as are the
relationships between these processes, making it difficult to maintain
* Labour intensity - Services usually involve considerable human activity,
rather than a precisely determined process. Human resource management is
important. The human factor is often the key success factor in service
industries. It is difficult to achieve economies of scale or gain dominant
* Demand fluctuations - It can be difficult to forecast demand (which is also
true of many goods). Demand can vary by season, time of day, business cycle,
* Buyer involvement - Most service provision requires a high degree of
interaction between client and service provider.
* Client-Based Relationships - Is based on creating long-term business
relationships. Accountants, attorneys, and financial advisers maintain long-term
relationships with their clientes for decades. These repeat consumers refer
friends and family, helping to create a client-based relationship.
Any service can be completely, consistently and cleary specified by means of the
following 12 standard attributes
1. Service Consumer Benefit(s)
2. Service-specific Functional Parameter(s)
3. Service Delivery Point
4. Service Consumer Count
5. Service Readiness Time(s)
6. Service Support Time(s)
7. Service Support Language(s)
8. Service Fulfillment Target
9. Maximum Impairment Duration per Incident
10. Service Delivering Duration
11. Service Delivery Unit
12. Service Delivering Price
The meaning and content of these attributes are:
Service Consumer Benefits describe the (set of) benefits which are callable,
receivable and effectively utilizable for any authorized service consumer and
which are provided to him as soon as he requests the offered service. The
description of these benefits must be phrased in the terms and wording of the
intended service consumers.
Service-specific Functional Parameters specify the functional parameters which
are essential and unique to the respective service and which describe the most
important dimension of the service output, e.g. maximum e-mailbox capacity per
registered and authorized e-mail service consumer.
Service Delivery Point describes the physical location and/or logical interface
where the benefits of the service are made accessible, callable and receivable
to the authorized service consumers. At this point and/or interface, the
preparedness for service delivery can be assessed as well as the effective
delivery of the service itself can be monitored and controlled.
Service Consumer Count specifies the number of intended, identified, named,
registered and authorized service consumers which are allowed and enabled to
call and utilize the defined service for executing and/or supporting their
business tasks or private activities.
Service Readiness Times specify the distinct agreed times of day when
* the described service consumer benefits are
* accessible and callable for the authorized service consumers at the defined
service delivery point
* receivable and utilizable for the authorized service consumers at the
respective agreed service level
* all service-relevant processes and resources are operative and effective
* all service-relevant technical systems are up and running and attended by the
* the specified service benefits are comprehensively delivered to any authorized
requesting service consumer without any delay or friction.
The time data are specified in 24 h format per local working day and local time,
referring to the location of the intended service consumers.
Service Support Times specify the determined and agreed times of day when the
usage and consumption of the contracted services is supported by the service
desk team for all identified, registered and authorized service consumers within
the service customer’s organizational unit or area. The service desk is the
single point of contact for any service consumer inquiry regarding the
contracted and delivered services. During the defined service support times, the
service desk can be reached by phone, e-mail, web-based entries and/or fax,
respectively. The time data are specified in 24 h format per local working day
and local time, referring to the location of the intended service consumers.
Service Support Languages specifies the languages which are spoken by the
service desk team(s) to the service consumers calling them.
Service Fulfillment Target specifies the service provider’s promise of effective
and seamless delivery of the defined benefits to any authorized service consumer
requesting the service within the defined service times. It is expressed as the
promised minimum ratio of the counts of successful individual service deliveries
related to the counts of called indivdual service deliveries. The effective
service fulfillment ratio can be measured and calculated per single service
consumer or per consumer group and may be referred to different time periods
(workday, calenderweek, workmonth, etc.)
Maximum Impairment Duration per Incident specifies the allowable maximum
elapsing time [hh:mm] between
* the first occurrence of a service impairment, i.e. service quality degradation
or service delivery disruption, whilst the service consumer consumes and
utilizes the delivered service,
* and the full resumption and complete execution of the service delivery to the
content of the affected service consumer.
Service Delivering Duration specifies the promised and agreed maximum period of
time for effectively delivering all specified service consumer benefits to the
requesting service consumer at the defined service delivery point.
Service Delivery Unit specifies the basic portion for delivering the defined
service consumer benefits. The service delivery unit is the reference and
mapping object for all cost for service generation and delivery as well as for
charging and billing the consumed service volume to the service customer who has
ordered the service delivery.
Service Delivering Price specifies the amount of money the service customer has
to pay for the consumption of distinct service volumes. Normally, the service
delivering price comprises two portions
* a fixed basic price portion for basic efforts and resources which provide
accessiblity and usablity of the service delivery functions, i.e. service access
* a price portion covering the service consumption based on
* fixed flat rate price per authorized service consumer and delivery period
without regard on the consumed service volumes,
* staged prices depending on consumed service volumes,
* fixed price per particularly consumed service delivering unit.
The delivery of a service typically involves six factors:
* The service providers (e.g. the people)
* Equipment used to provide the service (e.g. vehicles, cash registers)
* The physical facilities (e.g. buildings, parking, waiting rooms)
* The client
* Other customers at the service delivery location
* Customer contact
The service encounter is defined as all activities involved in the service
delivery process. Some service managers use the term "moment of truth" to
indicate that defining point in a specific service encounter where interactions
are most intense.
Many business theorists view service provision as a performance or act
(sometimes humorously referred to as dramalurgy, perhaps in reference to
dramaturgy). The location of the service delivery is referred to as the stage
and the objects that facilitate the service process are called props. A script
is a sequence of behaviours followed by all those involved, including the
client(s). Some service dramas are tightly scripted, others are more ad lib.
Role congruence occurs when each actor follows a script that harmonizes with the
roles played by the other actors.
In some service industries, especially health care, dispute resolution, and
social services, a popular concept is the idea of the caseload, which refers to
the total number of patients, clients, litigants, or claimants that a given
employee is presently responsible for. On a daily basis, in all those fields,
employees must balance the needs of any individual case against the needs of all
other current cases as well as their own personal needs.
Under English law, if a service provider is induced to deliver services to a
dishonest client by a deception, this is an offence under the Theft Act 1978.
The service-goods continuum
The dichotomy between physical goods and intangible services should not be given
too much credence. These are not discrete categories. Most business theorists
see a continuum with pure service on one terminal point and pure commodity good
on the other terminal point. Most products fall between these two extremes. For
example, a restaurant provides a physical good (the food), but also provides
services in the form of ambience, the setting and clearing of the table, etc.
And although some utilities actually deliver physical goods — like water
utilities which actually deliver water — utilities are usually treated as
In a narrower sense, service refers to quality of customer service: the measured
appropriateness of assistance and support provided to a customer. This
particular usage occurs frequently in retailing.
List of economic services
Service output in 2005
In 2005, USA was the largest producer of services followed by Japan and Germany,
reports the International Monetary Fund. 50% of the U.S. Economy consists of
services compared to 20% in 1947.
The following is an incomplete list of service industries, grouped into rough
sectors. Parenthetical notations indicate how specific occupations and
organizations can be regarded as service industries to the extent they provide
an intangible service, as opposed to a tangible good.
* business functions (that apply to all organizations in general)
* customer service
* human resources administrators (providing services like ensuring that
employees are paid accurately)
* child care
* cleaning, repair and maintenance services
* janitors (who provide cleaning services)
* electricians (offering the service of making wiring work properly)
* death care
* coroners (who provide the service of identifying corpses and determining time
and cause of death)
* funeral homes (who prepare corpses for public display, cremation or burial)
* dispute resolution and prevention services
* courts of law (who perform the service of dispute resolution backed by the
power of the state)
* incarceration (provides the service of keeping criminals out of society)
* law enforcement (provides the service of identifying and apprehending
* lawyers (who perform the services of advocacy and decisionmaking in many
dispute resolution and prevention processes)
* military (performs the service of protecting states in disputes with other
* negotiation (not really a service unless someone is negotiating on behalf of
* education (institutions offering the services of teaching and access to
* entertainment (when provided live or within a highly specialized facility)
* movie theatres (providing the service of showing a movie on a big screen)
* performing arts productions
* sexual services
* fabric care
* dry cleaning
* laundromat (offering the service of automated fabric cleaning)
* financial services
* banks and building societies (offering lending services and safekeeping of
money and valuables)
* real estate
* stock brokerages
* tax return preparation
* foodservice industry
* health care (all health care professions provide services)
* hospitality industry
* information services
* data processing
* database services
* language interpretation
* language translation
* risk management
* social services
* social work
* electric power
* natural gas
* waste management
* water industry
Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments.
One is the increased importance of the service sector in industrialized
economies. Services account for a higher percentage of US GDP than 20 years ago.
The current list of Fortune 500 companies contains more service companies and
fewer manufacturers than in previous decades.
The term is also used to refer to the relative importance of service in a
product offering. That is, products today have a higher service component than
in previous decades. In the management literature this is referred to as the
servitization of products. Virtually every product today has a service component
to it. The old dichotomy between product and service has been replaced by a
service-product continuum. Many products are being transformed into services.
For example, IBM treats its business as a service business. Although it still
manufactures computers, it sees the physical goods as a small part of the
"business solutions" industry. They have found that the price elasticity of
demand for "business solutions" is much less elastic than for hardware. There
has been a corresponding shift to a subscription pricing model. Rather than
receiving a single payment for a piece of manufactured equipment, many
manufacturers are now receiving a steady stream of revenue for ongoing
Full cost accounting and most accounting reform and monetary reform measures are
usually thought to be impossible to achieve without a good model of the service
Environmental effects of the service economy
This is seen, especially in green economics and more specific theories within it
such as Natural Capitalism, as having these benefits:
* Much easier integration with accounting for nature's services
* Much easier integration with state services under globalization, e.g. meat
inspection is a service that is assumed within a product price, but which can
vary quite drastically with jurisdiction, with some serious effects.
* Association of goods movements in commodity markets with negative commodity
(representing emissions or other pollution, biodiversity loss, biosecurity risk)
public bads so that no commodity can be traded without assuming responsibility
for damage done by its extraction, processing, shipping, trading and sale - its
* Easier integration with urban ecology and industrial ecology modelling
* Making it easier to relate to the Experience Economy of actual quality of life
decisions made by human beings based on assumptions about service, and
integrating economics better with marketing theory about brand value e.g.
products are purchased for their assumed reliability in some known process. This
assumes that the user's experience with the brand (implying a service they
expect) is far more important than its technical characteristics
Product stewardship or product take-back are words for a specific requirement or
measure in which the service of waste disposal is included in the distribution
chain of an industrial product and is paid for at time of purchase. That is,
paying for the safe and proper disposal when you pay for the product, and
relying on those who sold it to you, to dispose of it.
Those who advocate it are concerned with the later phases of product lifecycle
and the comprehensive outcome of the whole production process. It is considered
a pre-requisite to a strict service economy interpretation of (fictional,
national, legal) "commodity" and "product" relationships.
It is often applied to paint, tires, and other goods that become toxic waste if
not disposed of properly. It is most familiar as the container deposit charged
for a deposit bottle. One pays a fee to buy the bottle, separately from the fee
to buy what it contains. If one returns the bottle, the fee is returned, and the
supplier must return the bottle for re-use or recycling. If not, one has paid
the fee, and presumably this can pay for landfill or litter control measures
that dispose of say a broken bottle. Also, since the same fee can be collected
by anyone finding and returning the bottle, it is common for people to collect
these and return them as a means of surviving. This is quite common for instance
among homeless people in U.S. cities. Legal requirements vary: the bottle itself
may be considered the property of the purchaser of the contents, or, the
purchaser may have some obligation to return the bottle to some depot so it can
be recycled or re-used.
In some countries, such as Germany, law requires attention to the comprehensive
outcome of the whole extraction, production, distribution, use and waste of a
product, and holds those profiting from these legally responsible for any
outcome along the way. This is also the trend in the UK and EU generally. In the
United States, there have been many class action suits that are effectively
product stewardship liability - holding companies responsible for things the
product does which it was never advertised to do.
Rather than let liability for these problems be taken up by the public sector or
be haphazardly assigned one issue at a time to companies via lawsuits, many
accounting reform efforts focus on achieving full cost accounting. This is the
financial reflection of the comprehensive outcome - noting the gains and losses
to all parties involved, not just those investing or purchasing. Such moves have
made moral purchasing more attractive, as it avoids liability and future
The United States Environmental Protection Agency advocates product stewardship
to "reduce the life-cycle environmental effects of products." The ideal of
product stewardship, as administered by the EPA in 2004, "taps the shared
ingenuity and responsibility of businesses, consumers, governments, and others,"
the EPA states at a Web site.
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